July 25th, 2014 |
Database, Programming, Tech Talk | 4 Comments
Programming is fun. I love programming! Ever since I changed my career from programming to database work, I’ve still occasionally dabbled in my former craft. As such, I believe I can say this with a fair amount of accuracy: programmers don’t understand databases. This isn’t something small, either; there’s a fundamental misunderstanding at play. Unless the coder happens to work primarily with graphics, bulk set-based transformations are not something they’ll generally work with.
For instance, if tasked with inserting ten thousand records into a database table, a programmer might simply open the data source and insert them one by one. Consider this basic (non-normalized) table with a couple basic indexes:
CREATE TABLE sensor_log (
sensor_log_id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY,
location VARCHAR NOT NULL,
reading BIGINT NOT NULL,
reading_date TIMESTAMP NOT NULL
CREATE INDEX idx_sensor_log_location ON sensor_log (location);
CREATE INDEX idx_sensor_log_date ON sensor_log (reading_date);
Now suppose we have a file with ten thousand lines of something like this:
To load this data, our coder chooses Python and whips up an insert script. Let’s even give the programmer the benefit of the doubt, and say they know that prepared queries are faster due to less overhead. I see scripts like this all the time, written in languages from Java to Erlang. This one is no different:
db_conn = psycopg2.connect(database = 'postgres', user = 'postgres')
cur = db_conn.cursor()
"""PREPARE log_add AS
INSERT INTO sensor_log (location, reading, reading_date)
VALUES ($1, $2, $3);"""
file_input = open('/tmp/input.csv', 'r')
for line in file_input:
cur.execute("EXECUTE log_add(%s, %s, %s)", line.strip().split(','))
It’s unlikely we have the
/tmp/input.csv file itself, but we can generate one. Suppose we have 100 locations each with 100 sensors. We could produce a fake input file with this SQL:
SELECT substring(md5((a.id % 100)::TEXT), 1, 3) || '-' ||
to_char(a.id % 100, 'FM0999') AS location,
(a.id * random() * 1000)::INT AS reading,
now() - (a.id % 60 || 's')::INTERVAL AS reading_date
FROM generate_series(1, 10000) a (id)
) TO '/tmp/input.csv' WITH CSV;
Whew! That was a lot of work. Now, let’s see what happens when we time the inserts on an empty import table:
Well, a little over one second isn’t that bad. But suppose we rewrote the python script a bit. Bear with me; I’m going to be silly and use the python script as a simple pass-through. This should simulate a process that applies transformations and outputs another file for direct database import. Here we go:
file_input = open('/tmp/input.csv', 'r')
processed = open('/tmp/processed.csv', 'w+')
for line in file_input:
parts = line.strip().split(',')
processed.write(','.join(parts) + '\n')
db_conn = psycopg2.connect(database = 'postgres', user = 'postgres')
cur = db_conn.cursor()
processed, 'sensor_log', ',',
columns = ('location', 'reading', 'reading_date')
Now let’s look at the timings involved again:
That’s about three times faster! Considering how simple this example is, that’s actually pretty drastic. We don’t have many indexes, the table has few columns, and the number of rows is relatively small. The situation gets far worse as all of those things increase.
It’s also not the end of our story. What happens if we enable autocommit, so that each insert gets its own transaction? Some ORMs might do this, or a naive developer might try generating a single script full of insert statements, and not know much about transactions. Let’s see:
Oh. Ouch. What normally takes around a third of a second can balloon all the way out to a minute and a half. This is one of the reasons I strongly advocate educating developers on proper data import techniques. It’s one thing for a job to be three to five times slower due to inefficient design. It’s quite another to be nearly 250 times slower simply because a programmer believes producing the output file was fast, so logically, inserting it should be similarly speedy. Both scenarios can be avoided by educating anyone involved with data manipulation.
This doesn’t just apply to new hires. Keeping everyone up to date on new techniques is equally important, as are refresher courses. I care about my database, so when possible, I try to over-share as much information as I can manage. I even wrote and presented several talks which I periodically give to our application developers to encourage better database use. Our company Wiki is similarly full of information, which I also present on occasion, if only because reading technical manuals can be quite boring.
If my database is being abused, it’s my job as a DBA to try and alleviate the situation any way I can. Sometimes, that means telling people what they’re doing wrong, and how they can fix it. I certainly didn’t know all of this ten years ago when I was primarily a coder. But I would have appreciated being pointed in the right direction by someone with more experience in the field.
Your database and users deserve it.
June 11th, 2014 |
Database, Tech Talk | 5 Comments
When I heard about foreign tables using the new
postgres_fdw foreign data wrapper in PostgreSQL 9.3, I was pretty excited. We hadn’t upgraded to 9.3 so I waited until we did before I did any serious testing. Having done more experimentation with it, I have to say I’m somewhat disappointed. Why? Because of how authentication was implemented.
I’m going to get this out of the way now: The
postgres_fdw foreign data wrapper only works with hard-coded plain-text passwords, forever the bane of security-conscious IT teams everywhere. These passwords aren’t even obfuscated or encrypted locally. The only implemented security is that the
pg_user_mapping table is limited to superuser access to actually see the raw passwords. Everyone else sees this:
postgres=> SELECT * FROM pg_user_mapping;
ERROR: permission denied for relation pg_user_mapping
The presumption is that a database superuser can change everyone’s password anyway, so it probably doesn’t matter that it’s hardcoded and visible in this view. And the developers have a point; without the raw password, how can a server-launched client log into the remote database? Perhaps the real problem is that there’s no mechanism for forwarding authentication from database to database.
This is especially problematic when attempting to federate a large database cluster. If I have a dozen nodes that all have the same user credentials, I have to create mappings to every single user, for every single foreign table, on every single independent node, or revert to trust-based authentication.
This can be scripted to a certain extent, but to what end? If a user were to change their own password, this breaks every foreign data wrapper they could previously access. This user now has to give their password to the DBA to broadcast across all the nodes with modifications to the user mappings. In cases where LDAP, Kerberos, GSSAPI, peer, or other token forwarding authentication is in place, this might not even be possible or advised.
Oracle solved this problem by tying DBLINK tables to a specific user during creation time. An access to a certain table authenticates as that user in all cases. This means a DBA can set aside a specific user for foreign table access purposes, and use a password that’s easy to change across the cluster if necessary. Grants take care of who has access to these objects. Of course, since
postgres_fdw is read/write, this would cause numerous permissions concerns.
So what are we left with? How can we actually use PostgreSQL foreign tables securely? At this point, I don’t believe it’s possible unless I’m missing something. And I’m extremely confused at how this feature got so far along without any real way to lock it down in the face of malleable passwords. Our systems have dozens of users who are forced by company policy to change their passwords every 90 days, thus none of these users can effectively access any foreign table I’d like to create.
And no, you can’t create a mapping and then grant access to it. In the face of multiple mapping grants, which one would PostgreSQL use? No, if there’s a way to solve this particular little snag, it won’t be that convenient. If anyone has ideas, or would like to go into length at how wrong I am, please do! Otherwise, I’m going to have to use internal users of my own design and materialized views to wrap the foreign tables; extremely large tables will need some other solution.
May 27th, 2014 |
Contemplation, Database, News, Tech Talk | 4 Comments
This May, I attended my first international conference: PGCon 2014. Though the schedule spanned from May 20th to May 23rd, I came primarily for the talks. Then there was the Unconference on the 24th. I’d never heard of such a thing, but it was billed as a good way to network and find out what community members want from PostgreSQL. After attending the Unconference, I must admit I’m exceptionally glad it exists; it’s something I believe every strong Open Source project needs.
Why do I say that, having only been to one of them? It’s actually fairly simple. Around 10AM Saturday, everyone piled into the large lecture hall and had a seat. There were significantly fewer attendees, but most of the core committers remained for the festivities. We were promised pizza and PostgreSQL, and that’s all anyone needed. Josh Berkus started the festivities by announcing the rules and polling for ideas. The final schedule was pretty interesting in itself, but I was more enamored by the process and the response it elicited.
I’m no stranger to the community, and the mailing lists are almost overwhelmingly active. But these conversations, nearly all of them, are focused on assistance and hacker background noise. The thing that stood out to me during the Unconference planning was its organic nature. It wasn’t just that we chose the event schedule democratically. It wasn’t the wide range of topics. It wasn’t even the fact core members were there to listen. It was the engagement.
These people were excited and enjoying talking about PostgreSQL in a way I’ve never witnessed, and I’ve spoken at Postgres Open twice so far. I’ve seen several talks, been on both sides of the podium, and no previous experience even comes close. We were all having fun brainstorming about PostgreSQL and its future. For one day, it wasn’t about pre-cooked presentations chosen via committee, but about what “the community” wanted to discuss.
When it came time for the talks themselves, this atmosphere persisted. We agreed and disagreed, we had long and concise arguments for and against ideas, clarified our positions, and generally converged toward a loose consensus. And it was glorious. I know we were recording the sessions, so if you have the time when the videos are available, I urge you to watch just one so you can see the beauty and flow of our conversations.
I feel so strongly about this that I believe PGCon needs to start a day earlier. One unfortunate element about the Unconference is that it happens on a Saturday, when everyone wants to leave and return to their families. Worse, there is a marathon on Sunday, meaning it is difficult or even impossible to secure a hotel room for the Saturday event. People tend to follow the path of least resistance, so if there is a problem getting lodging, they won’t go.
And that’s a shame. Having a core of interested and engaged community members not only improves the reputation of PostgreSQL, but its advocacy as well. If people feel they can contribute without having to code, they’ll be more likely to do so. If those contributions, no matter how small, are acknowledged, their progenitors will stick around. I believe this is the grass-roots effort that makes PostgreSQL the future of the database world, and whoever came up with the Unconference deserves every accolade I can exclaim.
We need more of this. PostgreSQL has one of the most open communities I’ve had the pleasure of participating in, and that kind of momentum can’t really be forced. I hope every future PostgreSQL conference in every country has one of these, so everyone with the motivation can take part in the process.
Finally, find your nearest PostgreSQL User Group, and join the community. You’ll be glad you did.
May 14th, 2014 |
Database, Tech Talk | 6 Comments
PostgreSQL is a pretty good database, and I enjoy working with it. However, there is an implementation detail that not everyone knows about, which can drastically affect table performance. What is this mysterious feature? I am, of course, referring to foreign keys.
Foreign keys are normally a part of good database design, and for good reason. They inform about entity relationships, and they verify, enforce, and maintain those relationships. Yet all of this comes at a cost that might surprise you. In PostgreSQL, every foreign key is maintained with an invisible system-level trigger added to the source table in the reference. At least one trigger must go here, as operations that modify the source data must be checked that they do not violate the constraint.
This query is an easy way to see how many foreign keys are associated with every table in an entire PostgreSQL database:
SELECT t.oid::regclass::text AS table_name, count(1) AS total
FROM pg_constraint c
JOIN pg_class t ON (t.oid = c.confrelid)
GROUP BY table_name
ORDER BY total DESC;
With this in mind, consider how much overhead each trigger incurs on the referenced table. We can actually calculate this overhead. Consider this function:
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION fnc_check_fk_overhead(key_count INT)
RETURNS VOID AS
CREATE TABLE test_fk
id BIGINT PRIMARY KEY,
INSERT INTO test_fk
SELECT generate_series(1, 100000), repeat(' ', 20);
CLUSTER test_fk_pkey ON test_fk;
FOR i IN 1..key_count LOOP
EXECUTE 'CREATE TABLE test_fk_ref_' || i ||
' (test_fk_id BIGINT REFERENCES test_fk (id))';
FOR i IN 1..100000 LOOP
UPDATE test_fk SET junk = ' '
WHERE id = i;
DROP TABLE test_fk CASCADE;
FOR i IN 1..key_count LOOP
EXECUTE 'DROP TABLE test_fk_ref_' || i;
$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql VOLATILE;
The function is designed to create a simple two-column table, fill it with 100,000 records, and test how long it takes to update every record. This is purely meant to simulate a high-transaction load caused by multiple clients. I know no sane developer would actually update so many records this way.
The only parameter this function accepts, is the amount of tables it should create that reference this source table. Every referring table is empty, and has only one column for the reference to be valid. After the foreign key tables are created, it performs those 100,000 updates, and we can measure the output with our favorite SQL tool. Here is a quick test with
On our system, these timings were collected several times, and averaged 2961ms, 3805ms, 4606ms, 5089ms, and 5785ms after three runs each. As we can see, after merely five foreign keys, performance of our updates drops by 28.5%. By the time we have 20 foreign keys, the updates are 95% slower!
I don’t mention this to make you abandon foreign keys. However, if you are in charge of an extremely active OLTP system, you might consider removing any non-critical FK constraints. If the values are merely informative, or will not cause any integrity concerns, a foreign key is not required. Indeed, excessive foreign keys are actually detrimental to the database in a very tangible way.
I merely ask you keep this in mind when designing or revising schemas for yourself or developers you support.
May 8th, 2014 |
Database, Tech Talk | No Comments
With the release of PostgreSQL 8.4, the community gained the ability to use CTE syntax. As such, this is a fairly old feature, yet it’s still misunderstood in a lot of ways. At the same time, the query planner has been advancing incrementally since that time. Most recently, PostgreSQL has gained the ability to perform index-only scans, making it possible to fetch results straight from the index, without confirming rows with the table data.
Unfortunately, this still isn’t enough. There are still quite a few areas where the PostgreSQL query planner is extremely naive, despite the advances we’ve seen recently. For instance, PostgreSQL still can’t do a basic loose index scan natively. It has to be tricked by using CTE syntax.
To demonstrate this further, imagine this relatively common scenario: an order processing system where clients can order products. What happens when we want to find the most recent order for all current customers? Boiled down to its minimum elements, this extremely simplified table will act as our order system.
CREATE TABLE test_order
client_id INT NOT NULL,
order_date TIMESTAMP NOT NULL,
filler TEXT NOT NULL
Now we need data to test with. We can simulate a relatively old order processing system by taking the current date and subtracting 1,000 days. We can also bootstrap with 10,000 clients, and make the assumption that newer clients will be more active. This allows us to represent clients that have left our services as time goes on. So we start with this test data:
INSERT INTO test_order
(CURRENT_DATE - INTERVAL '1000 days')::DATE
+ generate_series(1, s1.id%1000),
repeat(' ', 20)
FROM generate_series(1, 10000) s1 (id);
generate_series function is very handy for building fake data. We’re still not ready to use that data, however. Since we want to find the most recent order for all customers, we need an index that will combine the
order_date columns in such a way that a single lookup will provide the value we want for any particular client. This index should do nicely:
CREATE INDEX idx_test_order_client_id_order_date
ON test_order (client_id, order_date DESC);
Finally, we analyze to make sure the PostgreSQL engine has the most recent stats for our table. Just to make everything easily repeatable, we also set the
default_statistics_target to a higher value than default as well.
SET default_statistics_target TO 500;
Now we’ll start with the most obvious query. Here, we just use the
client_id column and look for the max
order_date for each:
SELECT client_id, max(order_date)
GROUP BY client_id;
The query plan is fairly straight-forward, and will probably include a sequence scan. On the virtual server we’re testing with, the total runtime for us ended up looking like this:
Total runtime: 1117.408 ms
There is some variance, but the end result is just over one second per execution. We ran this query several times to ensure it was properly cached by PostgreSQL. Why didn’t the planner use the index we created? Let’s assume the planner doesn’t know what
max does, and treats it like any other function. With that in mind, we can exploit a different type of syntax that should make the index much more usable. So let’s try
DISTINCT ON with an explicit
ORDER clause that matches the definition of our index:
SELECT DISTINCT ON (client_id)
ORDER BY client_id, order_date DESC;
Well, this time our test system used an index-only scan, and produced the results somewhat faster. Our new runtime looks like this:
Total runtime: 923.300 ms
That’s almost 20% faster than the sequence scan. Depending on how much bigger the table is than the index, reading the index and producing these results can vary significantly. And while the query time improved, it’s still pretty bad. For systems with tens or hundreds of millions of orders, the performance of this query will continue to degrade along with the row count. We’re also not really using the index effectively.
Reading the index from top to bottom and pulling out the desired results is faster than reading the whole table. But why should we do that? Due to the way we built this index, the root node for each client should always represent the value we’re looking for. So why doesn’t the planner simply perform a shallow index scan along the root nodes? It doesn’t matter what the reason is, because we can force it to do so. This is going to be ugly, but this query will act just as we described:
WITH RECURSIVE skip AS
(SELECT client_id, order_date
ORDER BY client_id, order_date DESC
(SELECT (SELECT min(client_id)
WHERE client_id > skip.client_id
) AS client_id,
WHERE client_id = (
WHERE client_id > skip.client_id
) AS order_date
WHERE skip.client_id IS NOT NULL)
The query plan for this is extremely convoluted, and we’re not even going to try to explain what it’s doing. But the final query execution time is hard to discount:
Total runtime: 181.501 ms
So what happened here? How can the abusive and ugly CTE above outwit the PostgreSQL query planner? We use the same principle as described in the PostgreSQL wiki for loose index scans. We start with the desired maximum order date for a single
client_id, then recursively begin adding clients one by one until the index is exhausted. Due to limitations preventing us from using the recursive element in a sub-query, we have to use the
SELECT clause to get the next client ID and the associated order date for that client.
This technique works universally for performing sparse index scans, and actually improves as cardinality (the number of unique values) decreases. As unlikely as that sounds, since we are only using the root nodes within the index tree, performance increases when there are less root nodes to check. This is the exact opposite to how indexes are normally used, so we can see why PostgreSQL doesn’t natively integrate this technique. Yet we would like to see it added eventually so query authors can use the first query example we wrote, instead of the excessively unintuitive version that actually produced good performance.
In any case, all PostgreSQL DBAs owe it to themselves and their clusters to learn CTEs. They provide a powerful override for the query planner, and helps solve the edge cases it doesn’t yet handle.
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